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Kirytopoulos, K., Konstandinidou, M., Nivolianitou, Z. and Kazaras, K. 2014, ‘Embedding the human factor in road tunnel risk analysis’, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 92(4), 329 – 337.



The paper is focusing on road tunnel safety and builds upon the Directive 2004/54/EC launched by the European Commission; the latter sets basic requirements and suggests the implementation of risk assessment in several tunnel cases apart from technical measures imposed on the basis of tunnel structural and operational characteristics. Since the EU Directive does not indicate the method for performing risk assessment, a wide range of methods have been proposed, most of them based on Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). Although the majority of current road tunnel QRAs assess physical aspects of the tunnel system and consider several hazards concerning the transportation of dangerous goods through a tunnel, they do not take into account, sufficiently, several organizational and human-related factors that can greatly affect the overall safety level of these critical infrastructures. To cope with this limitation this paper proposes a fuzzy logic system based on CREAM method  for human reliability analysis (Hollnagel, 1998) in order to provide more sophisticated estimations of the tunnel operator’s performance in safety critical situations. It is deduced that a Human Reliability Analysis component to analyse operator performance, like the fuzzy system proposed here, is important for risk analysts. Consideration of organizational and human factors will enhance risk analysts’ studies and highlight the uncertainty related to human performance variability.

Keywords Road tunnels, Directive 2004/54/EC, fuzzy systems, CREAM, risk analysis, uncertainty representations, HRA