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Chatzoglou, K., Rokou, E., Tatsiopoulos, I. and Kirytopoulos, K. 2014 'On designing educational aids for users' safety in road tunnels', in Nowakowski, T., Młynczak, M., Jodejko-Pietruczuk, A. and Werbinska-Wojciechowska, S. (eds), Safety and Reliability Methodology and Applications: Proceedings of ESREL 2014, Wroclaw, Poland, 14-18 September 2014, CRC Press, London, 2001-2008.

Abstract:
Public awareness on road tunnel safety is a fact, especially after the major accidents of Mont Blanc and St. Gotthard. The major damages that were cased in these accidents combined with the loss of human lives raised the issue of improving road tun-nel safety in all aspects. Along with tunnel design and available equipment, the human factor is pivotal to the outcome of an accident. Subsequently, im-proving tunnel users' training and education on safe-ty aspects is of significant importance, as the current state is at an unsatisfactory level. Many studies state that there is in fact a lack of sufficient training of drivers when it comes to the use of road tunnels (PIARC, 2011). Despite that fact, reference in sci-entific literature is scarce on the improvement of tunnel users' education, and the field is primarily re-searched by professional organisations.
The aim of this research is to contribute to tunnel safety, by creating and modelling a set of education-al scenarios (Koper, 2005). These scenarios incorpo-rate the best practices regarding the use of unidirec-tional road tunnels. The users' inadequacies and mis-takes combined with the most common recommen-dations on road tunnel safety were taken into ac-count. The development of the scenarios was neces-sary in order to provide a well-defined structure of the educational process, with the goal of providing the information to the tunnel users in an appropriate manner. Through the scenarios, the tunnel users are informed about the regulations and the rules that ap-ply in road tunnels, they make themselves familiar to the environment of road tunnels and they learn the expected response in case of an unexpected incident.
By incorporating scenarios both in normal and critical conditions, emphasis is given on the tunnel user's reaction in case of an accident, as well as on accident prevention. The scenarios point out the basic guidelines of driving behaviour that a tunnel user should maintain and the proper responses of the user in case of an accident, especially when it in-cludes fire. Additionally, the need for the tunnel us-er to be able to identify and use the road tunnels equipment and infrastructure according to the cir-cumstances is an important part of the scenarios.
For the development and the representation of the educational scenarios, the Unified Modelling Lan-guage (UML) is used. UML was chosen because it provides a standardised notation for the graphic rep-resentation of a system's structure and behaviour. Additionally, UML facilitates the further research goal, which is to produce a web-based application for educating tunnel users (Rumbaugh et al., 1999). Ten UML diagrams were constructed, in order to depict the basic interactions of the tunnel user within the environment of a road tunnel, including emer-gency stopping, accident and fire incidence. Three of the scenarios diagrams are presented in this paper.

Keywords – Road tunnel risk analysis; educational software.